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Friday October 15th, 2010

The Good Friday Agreement: Dynamics of Conflict and Movements Towards Peace – Panel Two

Moderator: Michael P. Scharf, John Deaver‐Drinko – Baker and Hostetler Professor and Director, Frederick K. Cox International Law Center; Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Byron Bland, Stanford Law School, Stanford University

Bonnie Weir, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois ‐Urbana Champaign

Brendan O’Leary, Lauder Professor of Political Science and Director, Penn Program in Ethnic Conflict, University of Pennsylvania

Friday October 15, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-12:15 p.m.

Sponsored by the Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Panelists focus on the dynamics of moving toward peace over time from various “points of view,” the (mostly Catholic) Irish Republican paramilitary opposition and the broader, Irish Nationalist community as well as the (mostly Protestant) Loyalist paramilitary along with the broader Unionist community, and, finally and hopefully – the Irish government perspective.

The speakers discuss the unfolding dynamics of the conflict’s end and movement toward peace in light of their own experiences or analyses, the focus will account for how different groups’ goals, reasoning, and (in)ability to overcome any internal divisions affected the prospects of peace and of drawing violent parties into mainstream political institutions. Such a focus will help to reveal and highlight the dynamics of dissention within groups that have been conventionally treated as monolithic political actors, as well as how these internal divisions affected the broader conflict between groups that played out more openly over time.

These divisions are particularly and acutely salient to both Northern Irish and Irish politics today, with the recent decomissioning of Loyalist groups, the first security force member killings in more than a decade (by Republican ‘dissidents’), the growing number of Republicans and Nationalists becoming disillusioned with Sinn Fein’s ability to effectively negotiate its agenda through Stormont, and the scandal that threatens First Minister Robinson’s position – and therefore the Executive itself.

Finally, the panels will conclude with each speaker discussing how the case of the conflict in Northern Ireland can help us to understand conflict and the chances for peace elsewhere, with panel member(s) expanding on this issue.

The aim of the event is to understand and learn from the end of a real-life conflict, including how various points of view were accommodated, while achieving peace and reconciliation. The goal of that understanding is to examine how lawyers might apply similar methods to the practice of law, including negotiations among individuals or groups, arbitration, mediation and other circumstances

Additional Information About Our Guests…

Michael Scharf directs the Henry T. King, Jr. War Crimes Research Office and the Summer Institute for Global Justice in The Netherlands, and serves as U.S. director of the Canada‐U.S. Law Institute. In February 2005, Prof. Scharf and the Public International Law and Policy Group, a Non‐Governmental Organization that he cofounded and directs, were nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by six governments and the Prosecutor of an International Criminal Tribunal for the work they have done to help in the prosecution of major war criminals, such as Slobodan Milosevic, Charles Taylor, and Saddam Hussein. During the first Bush and Clinton Administrations, Prof. Scharf served in the Office of the Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State, where he held the positions of Attorney‐Adviser for Law Enforcement and Intelligence, Attorney‐Adviser for U.N. Affairs, and delegate to the U.N. Human Rights Commission.

Judicial clerk to Judge Gerald Bard Tjoflat on the Eleventh Circuit Federal Court of Appeals, Prof. Scharf has testified before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Armed Services Committee and is the author of over 70 scholarly articles and 13 books, including three that have won national book of the year honors. Recipient of the Case Western Reserve University School of Law Alumni Association’s 2005 “Distinguished Teacher Award” and Ohio Magazine’s 2007 “Excellence in Education Award,” Prof. Scharf teaches International Law, International Criminal Law, the Law of International Organizations, and the War Crimes Research Lab. During a sabbatical in 2008, he served as Special Assistant to the Prosecutor of the Cambodia Genocide Tribunal. He received his B.A. (1985), Order of the Coif, and his J.D. (1988) from Duke University.

Byron Bland is associate director of the Stanford Center on Conflict and Negotiation. An ordained Presbyterian minister and former Stanford campus chaplain, he has served as an ombudsman and conflict resolution consultant for various community and church groups. His more recent work concerns the politics of reconciliation in divided societies.

After serving the Stanford campus for 18 years as a chaplain, Bland left that post in 1994 to concentrate on peacemaking efforts in Northern Ireland. He is currently involved in a research project exploring the social and political dynamics of reconciliation with Community Dialogue, a grassroots dialogue organization in Northern Ireland. He is also working with community groups and civil leaders in Israel and the West Bank.

Before coming to Stanford University in 1976, Bland was the pastor of a multiracial, urban church in San Francisco. While at Stanford, he was appointed an associate fellow at the Program for Interdisciplinary Studies during 1993‐1994. He is a founding member of the Colloquium on Violence and Religion. For the past 20 years, he has taught an interdisciplinary course on peace at Stanford. He has also served as a lecturer in the Stanford Law School, the School of Education, and the International Relations program. He received an undergraduate degree in industrial engineering from Georgia Tech, an MA in social ethics and a master of divinity degree from the San Francisco Theological Seminary.

Bonnie Weir is an assistant professor of political science at the University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign. She studies the dynamics of violence employed by nonstate, politically‐motivated groups, with a particular interest in their potential decision to adopt peaceful strategies. Along with her substantive interests, Bonnie has focused on methodological shortcomings in the study of civil conflict, insurgency, and terrorism in the social sciences. Her concerns about several approaches that are typically used to test predominant theories on non‐state political violence lead her to conduct an extensive, interview‐based study of the case of the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland. She combines individual narratives with local‐level, “spatial” information to enhance our understanding of the often complex and personal nature of conflict and peacemaking among divided communities. Bonnie has worked with Children for Peace in Ireland and other groups in Northern Ireland and the United States whose goal is to help fully implement the institutions stipulated by the Good Friday Agreement and which tend to be lead by ex‐combatants.

Brendan O’Leary was born in Cork, Ireland. He was brought up in Nigeria, Sudan, and Northern Ireland. He is a graduate of Keble College, Oxford University, where he was the holder of an Open Scholarship, and received a first class honors degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (1981). Prof. O’Leary wrote his Ph.D. thesis at the London School of Economics & Political Science, which won the Robert McKenzie Memorial Prize and was subsequently published by Oxford: Basil Blackwell (1989).

Before coming to Penn, Prof. O’Leary was on the faculty of the London School of Economics and Political Science (1983 – 2003). He is the author, co‐author or co‐editor of 19 books and collections, and has authored or coauthored over 125 refereed articles and book chapters. Prof. O’Leary’s book, How to Get Out of Iraq With Integrity (2009) is available from University of Pennsylvania Press.

Prof. O’Leary was a political advisor to the British Labour Shadow Cabinet on Northern Ireland (1987 – 1997). He advised Irish, British, and American government ministers and officials and the Irish‐American Morrison delegation during the Northern Ireland peace process, and appeared as an expert witness before the U.S. Congress. He has also worked as a constitutional advisor for the E.U. and the U.N.

Prof. O’Leary has been a regular contributor to public media and debate in the U.S., Great Britain and Ireland. He has written numerous op‐eds for The Financial Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Los Angeles Times, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Guardian, The Belfast Telegraph, The Independent (London), The Independent (Dublin), Canada’s Globe and Mail, The Irish Times and many others.